Commentary

Brokers Commentary Compliance Investors

Markups, Markdowns

In recent years, markups have become a growing concern for regulators, and brokerage firm markup policies and procedures have come under increasing scrutiny from the SEC and the NASD. Essentially, a markup, or markdown, is the amount of money above (or below) the “inside” market that a broker dealer may […]

Churning
Brokers Commentary Investors

Was the Account Churned?

Churning is excessive trading in a customer’s account by a broker taken in the context of the customer’s financial situation and investment objectives. While no one test is available to determine if an account has been churned, churning requires three elements, first, excessive trading, and second, control of the account […]